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Chemistry KS5

£75.00

Our Chemistry KS5 solution meets the needs to develop understanding, skills and knowledge required for students at KS5 level. We incorporate fun and intriguing technologies to teach some of the hardest science concepts. Our teaching methodologies ensure students grasp key science ideas and principles without having to laboriously memorise formulae, equations and calculations!

Description

Chemistry KS5

Objectives and aims:

Our Chemistry KS5 solution meets the needs to develop understanding, skills and knowledge required for students at KS5 level. We incorporate fun and intriguing technologies to teach some of the hardest science concepts. Our teaching methodologies ensure students grasp key science ideas and principles without having to laboriously memorise formulae, equations and calculations!

Our Chemistry KS5 Solution is tailored to ensure students develop confidence and competence in a variety of practical, experimental and lab research skills. Most students develop enthusiasm in further study and careers associated with Chemistry and we support with such development. Our Chemistry KS5 Solution ensures that there is an appropriate balance between laboratory experiments, chemical processes simulation and practical examinations. Along with this, student get vital understanding of how the sciences contribute towards the success of the economy and society.

Physics KS5 Contents:

Formulae, Equations and Amounts of Substances:

  • empirical and molecular formulae
  • balanced chemical equations (full and ionic)
  • the Avogadro constant and the amount of substance (mole)
  • relative atomic mass and relative isotopic mass
  • calculation of reacting masses, mole concentrations, volumes of gases, per cent
  • yields and atom economies
  • simple acid–base titrations
  • non-structured titration calculations, based solely on experimental results

Atomic Structure:

  • structure and electronic configuration of atoms (up to Z = 36) in terms of main
    energy levels and s, p and d orbitals
  • ions and isotopes; use of mass spectrometry in determining relative atomic mass
    and relative abundance of isotopes.

Bonding and Structure:

  • simple harmonic motion.
  • interpretation of ionic and covalent bonding in terms of electron arrangements.
  • Examples of simple covalent, giant covalent, ionic and metallic structures
  • permanent and induced dipole–dipole interactions between molecules, including
    hydrogen bonding. Electronegativity and its application to bond type. Interpretation
    of the physical properties of materials in terms of structure and bonding
  • shapes of simple molecules and ions with up to six outer pairs of electrons (any
    combination of bonding pairs and lone pairs). Interpretation in terms of electron pair
    repulsion theory

Electric Circuits:

  • electric current as rate of flow of charge, I = Δq/Δt
  • emf and potential difference:
  • definition of emf and concept of internal resistance
  • potential difference in terms of energy transfer
  • resistance: definition, resistivity, Ohm’s law
  • DC Circuits:
    • conservation of charge and energy in circuits
    • relationships between currents, voltages and resistances in series and parallel
    circuits
    • power dissipated
    • potential divider circuits
  • capacitance:
    • definition
    • energy of a capacitor
    • quantitative treatment of charge and discharge curves.

Energetics:

  • enthalpy changes, including standard enthalpy changes of reaction, formation and
    combustion. Average bond enthalpies
  • use of Hess’s law to calculate enthalpy changes
  • use of energetics, including entropy, to predict the feasibility of reactions

Kinetics:

  • a qualitative understanding of collision theory. Activation energy and its relationship
    to the qualitative effect of temperature changes on rate of reaction. Boltzman
    distribution
  • the role of catalysts in providing alternative routes of lower activation energy
  • determination and use of rate equations of the form: Rate = k[A]mn, where
    m and n are integers. Using orders of reactions where appropriate, which
    may give information about a rate-determining/limiting step

Equilibria:

  • the dynamic nature of equilibria. For homogeneous reactions, the qualitative effects
    of temperature, pressure and concentration changes on the position of equilibrium
  • equilibrium constants, Kc
  • calculation of Kc and reacting quantities
  • the effect of temperature changes on Kc
  • the Bronsted–Lowry theory of acid–base reactions. The ionic product of
    water, Kw; pH and its calculation for strong acids and strong bases
  • dissociation constants of weak acids, Ka. Calculation of pH for weak acids.
  • Buffer solutions and their applications

Redox:

  • oxidation states and their calculation
  • oxidation and reduction as electron transfer, applied to reactions of s, p and d block
    elements
  • electrode potentials and their applications

Inorganic Potentials and their applications:

  • force fields:
  • the organisation of elements according to their proton number and electronic
    structures. Classification of elements into s, p and d blocks
  • the characteristic reactions of the elements and compounds of a metallic group and
    a non-metallic group. Trends in properties of elements and compounds within these
    groups
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  • trends in properties of elements across a period including:
    • melting point
    • ionisation energy
  • the transition metals as d block elements forming one or more stable ions
    that have incompletely filled d orbitals. At least two transition metals, chosen
    from titanium to copper, to illustrate:
  • the existence of more than one oxidation state for each element in its
    compounds
  • the formation of coloured ions in solution and simple precipitation
    reactions of these
  • reactions with ligands to form complexes and reactions involving ligand
    substitution
  • the catalytic behaviour of the elements and their compounds

Organic Chemistry:

  • functional groups. Structural isomers and stereoisomers (to include geometric (E–
    Z) isomerism as a result of restricted rotation about a carbon–carbon double bond
    and optical isomerism as a result of chirality in molecules with a single chiral
    centre)
  • reactions classified as addition, elimination, substitution, oxidation, reduction,
    hydrolysis, addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation
  • mechanisms classified as radical substitution, electrophilic addition, nucleophilic
    substitution, electrophilic substitution and nucleophilic addition
  • single and double covalent bonds, bond polarity and bond enthalpy as factors
    influencing reactivity, illustrated by reference to appropriate reactions
  • the structure of, and the bonding in, benzene
  • organic synthesis, including characteristic reactions of alkanes, alkenes,
    halogenoalkanes, alcohols, arenes, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids,
    esters, amines, amino acids and amides.

Modern analytical Techniques:

  • the use of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic
    resonance spectroscopy and chromatography in analysis, including techniques
    for the elucidation of structure
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